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Project ID: 09-1-04-5

Year: 2009

Date Started: 07/30/2009

Date Completed: 02/08/2013

Title: Superfog Formation: Laboratory Experiments and Model Development

Project Proposal Abstract: Researchers from the University of California at Riverside and the USDA Forest Service (FS) are proposing a study to understand the processes that govern the formation of "superfog", which is associated with low intensity, smoldering fires. This study is designed to complement a study proposed by FS collaborators (Drs. Achtemeier and Goodrick), who will conduct field studies and evaluate models to predict nocturnal smoke movement and the associated potential for visibility hazards. Our proposed study will put the interpretation of the field studies conducted by the FS on a sound scientific footing. We will develop a detailed mechanistic model for the behavior of plumes from smoldering fires, and evaluate and improve the model with data from wind tunnel experiments. The development of the mechanistic model will take advantage of the extensive research conducted on models for the behavior of hot, moist plumes emitted from cooling towers. In the wind tunnel, we will be in a unique position to control the environment and the composition of fuels to identify the conditions favorable to "superfog" initiation and persistence. This project will result in a mechanistic model that embodies detailed understanding of "superfog" formation associated with smoldering fires. The model will provide information to interpret field studies, and develop simple methods that can be used by land managers to predict the likelihood of "superfog."

Principal Investigator: Marko S. Princevac

Agency/Organization: University of California-Riverside

Branch or Dept: Department of Mechanical Engineering

Other Project Collaborators




Branch or Dept

Co-Principal Investigator

Gary L. Achtemeier

Forest Service

SRS-Forestry Sciences Lab-Athens GA

Co-Principal Investigator

Scott L. Goodrick

Forest Service

SRS-Ctr for Forest Disturbance Science

Co-Principal Investigator

Shankar M Mahalingam

University of Alabama-Huntsville

Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

Co-Principal Investigator

Akula Venkatram

University of California-Riverside

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Federal Cooperator

David R. Weise

Forest Service

PSW-Forest Fire Lab-Riverside

Federal Fiscal Representative

Anna Wong

Forest Service

PSW-Pacific Southwest Research Station

Project Locations

Fire Science Exchange Network




Great Basin

Great Plains

Lake States

Oak Woodlands

Northern Rockies




Southern Rockies









Project Deliverables

Final Report view or print

("Results presented in JFSP Final Reports may not have been peer-reviewed and should be interpreted as tentative until published in a peer-reviewed source.")

  ID Type Title
view or print   1710 Government Publication Laboratory Measurements and Sensitivity Modeling of Droplet Characteristics and Implications for Super Fog
view or print   1711 Government Publication Numerical and Physical Investigation of the Properties of Superfog
    5588 Invited Paper/Presentation Modeling and Laboratory Measurements of the Development of Superfog
    5589 Invited Paper/Presentation Laboratory Measurements and Sensitivity Modeling of Droplet Characteristics and Implications for Super Fog

Supporting Documents

There are no supporting documents available for this project.

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